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Putting things in boxes is a very human behavior. It is the way the human brain works in order to understand things. For this reason, we tend to compartmentalize and put everything in boxes – silos. In product development organizations, silos are detrimental to innovation, productivity, and overall success. Silos refer to isolated and disconnected departments, teams, or functions within an organization that hinder effective communication, collaboration, knowledge sharing, and information flow. This article delves into the problems caused by silos in product development organizations and presents strategies to reduce their impact, ultimately fostering a more integrated and collaborative environment.

The Problems Caused by Silos

Handoffs and Dependencies

Silos create handoffs between different functions or departments, where one team completes their work and passes it on to the next team for further processing. Each handoff introduces a potential delay as the receiving team may have their own priorities or be dealing with a backlog. Without effective communication and collaboration, these handoffs become bottlenecks, causing work to pile up and slowing down the overall process. Effective handoffs need to be designed into processes; they don’t happen by themselves. For example, imagine a task that requires three people to work on it. If each person uses an hour of work time to do their part, the minimum throughput time would be three hours. Typically, there is a 1 to 10 workdays delay between individuals, which means that throughput time will be dominated by the waiting time between those individuals. Thus, the three hours can turn into two weeks just because of handovers.

Silo Working

Lack of Visibility and Accountability

Silos often result in a lack of visibility across the entire product development process. Each function or team may only be focused on their own tasks and goals, without a holistic understanding of the broader workflow. This lack of visibility makes it difficult to identify bottlenecks, address inefficiencies, or hold accountable the teams responsible for delays. The absence of clear ownership and accountability will further prolong throughput times. This also applies to waiting times and the size of queues or backlogs.

Lack of Cross-Functional Knowledge, Expertise, and Collaboration

Silos limit the exchange of knowledge and expertise across functions. As a result, teams may lack a comprehensive understanding of the requirements, challenges, or constraints faced by other teams involved in the product development process. This lack of cross-functional knowledge typically leads to misunderstandings, rework, and delays as teams need to go back and forth to clarify requirements or address issues that could have been resolved more efficiently through collaboration. A recent example of this comes from Tesla. Elon Musk mentioned that there was a part in the Tesla Model 3 car assembly that was slowing down the entire production process. There was a glass fiber insulation between the battery and passenger compartment. The battery team thought it was needed for noise insulation, while the noise team thought it was needed for fire safety because of the battery. Eventually, the part was completely removed because it was unnecessary. The reduction of this one part helped drive down costs, production time, and improve quality.

Strategies to Reduce Silos

Streamline Workflows and Processes

Review and streamline workflows and processes to eliminate unnecessary handoffs and reduce waiting times between functions. Clarify responsibilities, including queues or backlogs within or between functions. Identify areas of inefficiency or duplication and implement measures to streamline the flow of work. This may involve redefining roles and responsibilities, optimizing approval processes, or implementing workflow automation tools to minimize manual interventions and reduce throughput times. It is also important to establish a single point of truth for information.

Develop a Shared Understanding of Goals, Priorities, and Responsibilities

Ensure that teams and departments have a shared understanding of the organization’s goals and priorities. Clearly communicate the overall objectives and align individual functions accordingly. By creating a common sense of purpose, teams are more likely to collaborate and coordinate their efforts effectively, leading to improved throughput times. Identify gaps in responsibilities and address them.

Foster a Culture of Continuous Improvement

Encourage employees to identify and address bottlenecks or inefficiencies in the product development process. Establish mechanisms for employees to suggest improvements, such as idea sharing platforms or regular feedback sessions. Foster a culture of continuous improvement where all team members actively contribute to identifying and implementing solutions that can reduce silos and improve throughput times.


Silos in product development organizations significantly impact throughput times, leading to delays and inefficiencies. By implementing strategies that foster communication, collaboration, streamlined processes, and a shared understanding of goals, organizations can effectively reduce the impact of silos. Breaking down these barriers allows for better coordination and integration across functions, ultimately leading to improved productivity, faster time-to-market, and enhanced overall performance. It all begins with understanding the phenomenon and taking conscious actions against its detrimental effects.

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